Water Management
Water management service provided to Provincial Waterworks Authority
Process Diagram
Water Production Procedures

Comprised of 3 procedures; clarification, filtration and disinfection. Key and supporting production processes are as follows:

Pre Treatment
Raw water from the river will flow through the floating boom, bar screen and then band screen, which are installed to separate weed, moss, residue and contaminants in the water from accessing the production system.
Chemical Dosing
Raw water that has been pumped into the production system will normally contain suspended solids in it, and thus chemical needs to be added to remove such suspended solids. Initially, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and lime may be added in the raw water pipeline to adjust the acidity and alkalinity (pH), which will facilitate the clarification process. After that, alum and polymer will be added to further facilitate clarification. These 3 chemicals will be added to the rapid mixing tank in order for them to react with the sediment and the turbidity of the water, leading to faster sedimentation.

Once the chemical-added raw water has been mixed in the tank, it will be transferred into the clarifier, by getting through the tri-dent and them down to the bottom of the tank and eventually lifted to the top. Clear water at the uppermost will overflow into the gutter through to the filter. Meanwhile, sediment, once gathered together, will form sludge, will be drained out to the sediment removal system. Water processed from the clarification system will then be transferred into the production process again, while sludge cake will be disposed of in the designated area.

The water from the clarification process will still have minor suspended solids contaminated in it, and these will have to be removed using the rapid sand filter, which will trap the contaminants or suspended solids at the surface and the filter. Water that passes through this sand filter shall have the turbidity level of not more than 1 NTU.
Final Disinfection
Before distributing water to consumers, appropriate amount of chlorine will be added (post-chlorine), which is adequate to kill germs in clear water tanks and distribution pipeline so that consumers can get clean, pure and standard-quality water.
Sediment Removal
Sediments drained from the clarifier will be transferred to the sludge thickening tank to separate water from sediment. The water acquired from this process will be transferred back to the production process, while the sediment will be transferred to the belt press, and then be disposed of in the designated area.